Figures 02-03: The longitudinal line through the center of the frog signifies the correct way to understand how weight bears upon each hoof, according to Russell.
Figure 04: Sagittal view Duckett’s method. Note line through centers of rotation of joints passes through point of breakover. Also note line does not pass through tip of frog as Russell claims it should.
Figure 05: Yale Union professor William Russell’s perfect fit foot adjuster.
Figures 06-07: (Left) Specimen foot shod to Russell’s standard. Notice how much of the shoe is in front of the center of bridge. (Right) Specimen foot shod to Duckett’s standard. Note the proportions. The shoe is exactly centered under the Bridge from breakover to posterior support.
Figures 08-09: (Left) Perfect front foot: A,A axial line of leg. B,B axial line through coffin bone. (Right) Coffin bone lateral view with correct positioning.
Figures 10-12: Proper technique for application and reading of the foot tester.
Figure 13: The skeleton and outline of a horse drawn from nature.
Figures 14-15: (left) Russell’s diagram showing under the surface of a perfect front hoof properly prepared for the shoe, with guidelines for leveling and balancing the foot. (right) Duckett’s explanation overlaying Russell’s ideal foot mapping.
Figure 16: Russell’s “point C” is the contended external summit of the horny frog.
Figure 17: A comparison and contrast image of Russell’s and Duckett’s definitions of the underside geography of the hoof.
Figures 18-20: New technology has aided Duckett in understanding and evidencing his work.
“… whatever tends to defeat the purpose of nature in organizing the locomotory apparatus by interfering with or misdirecting its normal movement will ultimately result in that loss of harmony and lack of balance by disabled functions and testified by lameness.”
– Prof. William Russell